Sophocles is credited with skillfully developing irony as a literary technique, most famously in his play Oedipus Rex. By the time of Elizabethan literature a vigorous literary culture in both drama and poetry included poets such as Edmund Spenser, whose verse epic The Faerie Queenehad a strong influence on English literature but was eventually overshadowed by the lyrics of … Some of these distorted beginnings of new styles can be seen in the literature generally described as Matter of Rome, Matter of France and Matter of Britain. Euripedes, conversely, used plays to challenge societal norms and mores—a hallmark of much of Western literature for the next 2,300 years and beyond—and his works such as Medea, The Bacchae and The Trojan Women are still notable for their ability to challenge our perceptions of propriety, gender, and war. The collections of source materials are particularly strong in these areas: Some smaller but notable concentrations exist: Checklist of Post-1500 French Manuscripts, Checklist of Post-1500 Italian Manuscripts, Bibliographic Guide for European History and Literature. The term itself was coined in the 1840s, in England, but the movement had been around since the late 18th century, primarily in Literature and Arts. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales told by the Persian Queen Scheherazade. Much of the early literature from Mesopotamia concerns the activities of the gods but, in time, humans came to be featured as the main characters in such poems as Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta and Lugalbanda and Mount Hurrum (c.2600-2000 BCE). A playwright named Aeschylus changed Western literature forever when he introduced the ideas of dialogue and interacting characters to playwriting. By 1600 it had spread to France, England, Germany, Netherlands, Spain and other European countries. The writings of Bede—Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum—and others continue the faith-based historical tradition begun by Eusebius in the early 4th century. The epic took form in the 10th century and reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another. Lyric poetry advanced far more in China than in Europe prior to 1000, as multiple new forms developed in the Han, Tang, and Song dynasties: perhaps the greatest poets of this era in Chinese literature were Li Bai and Du Fu. This meant that the plausibility of great marvels had to be set at a greater distance of time ("long ago") and place ("far away"). This era contained the Hundred Years War, which ended in 1453, and the Black Death, which eliminated nearly one-third of Europe’s population. All the parts, even the female ones, were played by men (en travesti) but that would change, first in France and then in England too, by the end of the 17th century. Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Modern Studies, Making an Appointment for the Reading Rooms, Newberry Institute for Research and Education, Center for American Indian and Indigenous Studies, Newberry Teachers’ Consortium: Professional Development Seminars, Resources for Remote Teaching and Learning, Opportunities for Chicago Public School Teachers, Chicago: City of Commerce and Design, 1890-1990 Seminar, Religion and Culture in the Americas Seminar, Center for American Indian and Indigenous Studies Programs, NCAIS Spring Workshop in Research Methods, Mellon Summer Institutes in Vernacular Paleography, Center for the History of Cartography Programs, Stories from the Newberry Center for Renaissance Studies, Warning Concerning Copyright Restrictions, FAQ - NTC Professional Development Seminars, About 300 medieval and Renaissance manuscripts, Political treatises of all periods to the time of the French Revolution, Early works on military science and military architecture, The institutional history of the Christian churches, Children’s books, especially alphabet books, Hebraica, especially manuscripts and early printing. European History and Literature The Assembly Man, Written in the Year of 1647. The first author of literature in the world, known by name, was the high-priestess of Ur, Enheduanna (2285-2250 BCE) who wrote hymns in praise of the Sumerian goddess Inanna. With the fear of contagion a distant bad memory, and people eager to get out of their homes and see more of the world, internationa… Expert Answers ... Top subjects are Literature, History, and Science ... it cannot make up for the genocide which began over five hundred years ago. From the 16th to the 18th century Commedia dell'arte performers improvised in the streets of Italy and France. As a specific discipline viewed through the lens of European literature, American literature began in the early 17th century with the arrival of English-speaking Europeans in what would become the United States. 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